Old Cairo out & About # p4
With my dear friends & students In Cairo #citadel :The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic:قلعة صلاح الدين Qalaʿat Salāḥ ad-Dīn) is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, #Egypt. The location,on Mokattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city. It is now a preserved historic site, with mosques and museums. In 1976, it was proclaimed by UNESCO as a part of the World Heritage Site Historic Cairo (Islamic #Cairo)which was "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century.
The Citadel was fortified by the Kurdish Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) between 1176 and 1183 CE, to protect it from the Crusaders. Only a few years after defeating the Fatimid Caliphate, Saladin set out to build a wall that would surround both Cairo and Fustat. Saladin is recorded as saying, "With a wall I will make the two [cities of Cairo and Fustat into a unique whole, so that one army may defend them both; and I believe it is good to encircle them with a single wall from the bank of the Nile to the bank of the Nile."The Citadel would be the centerpiece of the wall. Built on a promontory beneath the Muqattam Hills, a setting that made it difficult to attack, the efficacy of the Citadel's location is further demonstrated by the fact that it remained the heart of #Egyptian government until the 19th century. The citadel stopped being the seat of government when Egypt's ruler, Khedive Ismail, moved to his newly built Abdin Palace in the Ismailiya neighborhood in the 1860s. While the Citadel was completed in 1183–1184, the wall Saladin had envisioned was still under construction in 1238, long after his death
Saladin died in 1193. Throughout his life he had displayed a total lack of pretension and was generous with his personal wealth; upon his death his friends discovered he'd left no funds to pay for his burial. Saladin's family would rule as the Ayyubid dynasty until it moved to the Mamluks in 1250.
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Old Cairo out & About # 3
Behind me the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan which is a massive mosque and madrassa located in the Old city of Cairo, it was built during the Mamluk Islamic era in Egypt. Its construction began 757 AH/1356 CE with work ending three years later "without even a single day of idleness".At the time of construction the mosque was considered remarkable for its fantastic size and innovative architectural components. Commissioned by an-Nasir Hasan, a sultan of a short and relatively unimpressive profile, al-Maqrizi noted that within the mosque were several "wonders of construction".The mosque was, for example, designed to include schools for all four of the Sunni schools of thought: Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanafi and Hanbali.
The Mosque of Sultan Hasan is one of the largest mosques in the world, measuring 150m in length and covering an area of 7,906 sq m. Its walls rise to 36m and its tallest minaret to 68m. Visitors enter the complex through a tall portal that is itself a work of art. A dark and relatively low-ceilinged !
Masha'alla Allah la Qwata 'illa be'llah
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Bismillah Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem
Qul-a'udhu bi Rabb il-falaq
Min sharri ma khalaq
Wa min sharri ghasiqin 'idha waqab
Wa min sharr-in-naffathati fi-l-'uqad
Wa min sharri hasidin idha hasad
JIHAD: A Misunderstood Concept from Islam .. as we All know in the MEDIA The Arabic word "jihad" is often translated as "holy war," but in a purely linguistic sense, the word" jihad" means struggling or striving.
The #arabic word for #war is: "al-harb".
In a religious #sense, as described by the #Quran & #teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (s), "jihad" has many meanings. It can refer to internal as well as external efforts to be a good #Muslims or believer, as well as working to inform people about the faith of Islam.
If military jihad is required to protect the #faith against others, it can be performed using anything from legal, diplomatic and economic to political means. If there is no peaceful alternative, Islam also allows the use of force, but there are strict rules of engagement. Innocents- such as #women, #children, or invalids -must #never be harmed, and any peaceful overtures from the enemy must be accepted!
The concept of jihad has been hijacked by many political and religious groups over the ages in a bid to justify various forms of violence.In most cases, Islamic splinter groups invoked jihad to fight against the established Islamic order. Scholars say this misuse of jihad contradicts #Islam.#Examples of sanctioned military jihad include the Muslims' defensive battles against the Crusaders in medieval times, and before that some responses by #Muslims against Byzantine & #Persian attacks during the period of the early #Islamic conquests.
WHAT JIHAD IS NOT
Jihad is not a violent concept.
Jihad is not a declaration of war against other religions.It is worth noting that the Koran specifically refers to Jews & Christians as " #people of the #book" who should be protected and respected. All three faiths worship the same God. Allah is just the Arabic word for #God,& is used by Christian Arabs as well as Muslims.
Military action in the name of Islam has not been common in the #history of Islam. Scholars says most calls for violent jihad are not sanctioned by Islam
Warfare in the #name of God is not unique to Islam. Other faiths throughout the #world have waged wars with religious justifications